Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Nelumbo nucifera
ZF-HD Family
Species TF ID Description
NNU_000297-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_000744-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_000820-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_001773-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_002338-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_004922-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_006386-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_008514-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_008515-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_009651-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_011734-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_016346-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_017459-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_020897-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_025229-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_025330-RAZF-HD family protein
NNU_025715-RAZF-HD family protein
ZF-HD Family Introduction

This group of sequences described by a 54-residue domain found in the N-terminal region of plant proteins, the vast majority of which contain a ZF-HD class homeobox domain toward the C terminus. The region between the two domains typically is rich in low complexity sequence. The companion ZF-HD homeobox domain is described in INTERPRO:IPR006455.

A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Windhovel A, Hein I, Dabrowa R, Stockhaus J.
Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jan;45(2):201-14.
PMID: 11289511